Tiempo: pretérito perfecto (perfect past)
This post is about verb conjugation -the perfect tense, indicative mood of irregular verb poner.
Imagine you are talking to relatives, friends or colleagues. Earlier on the same day, you all had a meal together -something you do on a regular basis. At such occasions, you take turns setting the table. No sure about who has done it on this occasion, someone says to you: "tell me, who has set the table today?"
Dime, ¿quién ha puesto la mesa hoy?
On the other hand, he/ she could choose to be more formal and say:
Dígame, ¿quién ha puesto la mesa hoy?
- Make sure that you conjugate your verb correctly
- Choose between formal or familiar options to suit the occasion -see examples below.
Typical answers could be:
- Yo he puesto* la mesa hoy (I have set the table today)
- Tú has puesto* la mesa hoy, ¿no? (you -familiar have set the table today, haven't you?)
- Usted ha puesto* la mesa hoy, ¿no? (you -formal have set the table today, haven't you?)
- Pedro ha puesto* la mesa hoy (Pedro has set the table today)
- María ha puesto* la mesa hoy (Maria has set the table today)
- Pedro y yo hemos puesto* la mesa hoy (Pedro I have set the table today)
- Vosotros habéis puesto* la mesa hoy, ¿no? (you people -familiar/ plural have set the table today, haven't you?)
- Ustedes han puesto* la mesa hoy, ¿no? (you people -formal/ plural have set the table today, haven't you?)
- Pedro y María han puesto* la mesa hoy (Pedro and María have set the table today)
Now you should practise replying to someone who says to you:
Dime, ¿quién ha puesto la mesa hoy?
*Please see grammar topic below, Verbs
- What action takes place in a sentence
- Who does that action
- When that action occurs.
In addition, the verb may also convey the mood or feelings of the speaker toward the action which takes place. The verb may, for example, indicate whether the speaker is stating a fact, expressing a wish or indeed giving an order.
The Spanish verb poner is irregular* in some tenses, as shown in the table below:
- TenseMoodRegularIrregularPresentIndicative✓ImperfectIndicative✓PreteriteIndicative✓FutureIndicative✓ConditionalIndicative✓PerfectIndicative✓PluperfectIndicative✓Future PerfectIndicative✓Conditional PerfectIndicative✓PresentSubjunctive✓ImperfectSubjunctive✓PerfectSubjunctive✓PluperfectSubjunctive✓
- Conjugate tenses in the regular column the same as other regular verbs ending in -er
- The perfect tense conjugation/ indicative mood is shown below
Indicative Mood/ Perfect Tense - Conjugation
- SubjectPONER(TO PUT)
IYoHE PUESTO YouTúHAS PUESTO You Usted*HA PUESTO He Él SheElla WeNosotrosHEMOS PUESTO YouVosotros**HABÉIS PUESTO YouUstedes***HAN PUESTO TheyEllos TheyEllas
*NB More courteous/ polite form of 'you'
**NB 'You' plural
*** NB More courteous/ polite form of 'you' plural
Verb Conjugation Notes
It is worth remembering once more that in its basic form (infinitive), a Spanish verb is just a general 'doing' word. In that form, a verb simply indicates an action and nothing else. If we want a verb to be more specific about the action in a sentence, we need to conjugate it. It is only when conjugated that the verb indicates:
- Who does the action
- When the action takes place
- The mood/ attitude of the speaker towards the action
The conjugation tables above refer to using conjugation to establish who does the action. What follows below are some notes on establishing when the action takes place and the mood/ attitude of the speaker towards the action.
The use of subjunctive mood is disappearing English. Nowadays is often viewed as an old and unfashionable form of the language.
In contrast, the use of subjunctive mood is very much alive and in everyday use in Spanish. This widespread use of subjunctive mood tends to be the bane of many a learner of Spanish from the English speaking world.
The concept of subjunctive mood is perhaps best illustrated by contrasting its use against the use of indicative mood with examples in English. The following are a couple of examples which should serve that purpose:
- Indicative mood (“Peter eats an apple”).- Indicative mood is commonly used to make statements of facts or positive beliefs such as this one. As can be seen in the sample sentence (in quotes above), the speaker makes a clear and unambiguous statement of a fact (Peter eats an apple).
- Subjunctive mood (“Peter would eat an apple if he were hungry”).- In contrast with indicative mood, subjunctive mood is commonly used to make statements indicating hypothetical or non-fact actions. As can be seen in the sample sentence (in quotes), in this case the speaker sees the action of eating an apple as something hypothetical, something which may or may not happen (Peter would eat an apple... if he were hungry).
Verb tenses relate to setting the time period (when) during which the action of the verb takes place. Basic times (periods) for Spanish verb actions are:
- The past (before now)
- The present (now)
- The future (after now)
Each Spanish verb tense corresponds to one of those basic time periods. In other words choosing a verb tense places the action of the verb in one of those basic periods and determines when the action takes place.
Now you should practise the use of the perfect tense of the irregular verb poner with some examples of your own.
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